Bridge World Standard
Bridge World Standard (BWS) is a system based on the majority preferences of approximately 125 leading experts and thousands of Bridge World readers. Its methods were determined by polls: a clear expert preference determined the treatment; close questions were decided by the readers' vote. Because it is a consensus system, BWS is rarely used by regular partnerships. It is, however, very valuable in forming casual partnerships--if both partners know the system, they need discuss only those areas in which individual preferences do not conform to the BWS treatment. BWS is also used as a foundation for voting in the Master Solvers' Club in The Bridge World.

Opening Bids and Responses

Minimum balanced hand: good 12.

1 NT: good 15 to bad 18. Jacoby transfers (splinter rebids; game raise is slam try; two diamonds plus two spades forcing only one round); two spades shows minors; three hearts invitational, major two-suiter; Texas transfers; Stayman (two-spade rebid invitational; two-heart rebid weak; minor rebid forcing); Smolen; three of a minor invitational; Gerber.

2 NT: good 20 to bad 22 (small doubleton acceptable). Jacoby transfers; three spades shows minors; Texas transfers; Gerber; High Gerber.

Two clubs artificial, strong: Natural responses (positive response requires good suit); two diamonds neutral; second negative=cheaper minor to three diamonds.

Preempts: Weak two-bids (two notrump, which asks for feature if maximum, and new-suit responses forcing). "Weak gambling" three-bids. New-suit response to game-level opening asking-bid (step responses).

3 NT: gambling (little outside strength); four-diamond response artificial.

Five-card majors in first and second position: one-notrump response forcing; two-over-one promises rebid; limit jump raises (four trumps; cheapest rebid asks shortness); two notrump strong raise (asks shortness); three notrump natural, 16-17; passed-hand responses: one notrump 6-12, two clubs strong raise, three clubs natural.

Responses to minor-suit openings: Single raise strong, 10 pts. up, denies major; jump raise weak; 1 NT 8-10 after one club, 6-10 after one diamond; two notrump natural, game force; up the line may be ignored with moderate hand; two-club response to one diamond promises a rebid.

Partnership Bidding

Splinter raises: Double-jump shift after suit opening; single jump in fourth suit if one level above a reverse; single jump in third suit if four level, or reverse; double jump in fourth suit; four of opener's minor after new-suit rebid; jump-shift by two-diamond responder to two clubs; new-suit jump after single major raise; double new-suit jump after 1 NT response.

Slam methods: Roman key-card Blackwood with trump-queen ask; DOPI; five notrump (2 keys) or higher response with void; 5 NT rebid invites seven, asks king cue-bidding. Cheapest-weakest responses to grand-slam force. Gerber after one-notrump or two-notrump opening, or rebid. Picture jumps in forcing situations.

Other methods: Fourth-suit bidding: nonforcing by passed hand unless reverse; one spade may be weak; promises another bid at two level; game force if reverse or at three level. Third-suit bidding: game force if reverse or at three level, otherwise does not promise rebid. Opener's suit-over-suit reverse promises rebid; responder's cheaper of 2 NT and fourth suit neutral. All non-jump-shift secondary jumps by one-over-one responder invitational. Opener's jump rebid to four of original minor is strong raise. Unbid minor forcing and artificial after one-notrump rebid, requests support. Three clubs artificial, may be prelude to signoff, after two-notrump jump by opener. Reraise to three of major preemptive.

Competitive Bidding

Negative doubles: After suit opening, through three spades (including opener's suit); after one-notrump opening, at the three level; unlimited; suggests length in unbid major; of one heart shows four spades; of one spade after minor opening shows four or more hearts. Repeat same-suit double by negative doubler for takeout.

Weak jump responses after overcall of minor opening.

Over overcall: jump raise preemptive, cue-bid is at least limit raise, jump cue-bid is splinter.

Over two-suited overcalls: cheapest cue = raise; next cue = unbid suit; unbid suit nonforcing.

Over minor Michaels: unbid suit nonforcing; major suit shows stopper.

Over major Michaels: cue-bid in enemy major is limit raise or better; new suit forcing.

Support doubles and redoubles when raise to two is available, except one club--(pass)--one diamond--(one spade)--double shows hearts.

Over a double of partner's suit bid: new suit forcing at the one level only; jump shift nonforcing; two notrump limit raise or better; double jump in new suit splinter

Lebensohl after two-level overcalls of one notrump (fast denies stop).

Jump cue-bid by opener is splinter raise.

Pass and pull strong in forcing situation.

Defensive Bidding

Michaels cue-bids (in minor: majors; in major: other major plus unspecified minor) in direct and reopening position over suit one-bids and over one-notrump response; weak or quite strong.

Direct jump cue-bid natural over minor, asks stopper over major.

Takeout doubles of preemptive openings through four hearts; otherwise for penalty.

Maximal overcall double of raised suit.

Reopenings: 1 NT, 10-14; 2 NT, 18-19.

In fourth seat over a response: one notrump and cue-bids natural.

After 1 NT overcall: two clubs Stayman; jumps invitational.

Double of free new-suit bid by responder shows fourth suit plus tolerance.

Cappelletti over one notrump (all situations).

Direct two notrump unusual for lower unbid suits; weak or quite strong.

Takeout doubles: may be light with shape; new-suit rebid very strong.

Preemptive jump overcalls and jump raises of overcalls.

Responsive and extended responsive doubles after takeout doubles, at the two level after an overcall, after a preempt.

Mixed-raise advances of overcalls.

Cue-bid by advancer forcing until a suit is bid twice, or game.

Lebensohl after double of weak two-bid, either position by unpassed hand, and following one-notrump overcall.

Opening Leads

Against suit contracts: third from even; low from odd. All other leads old-fashioned.

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